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Ecosystem Inventory
Plant Checklist of the Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
expand article infoNorzielawati Salleh, Syazwani Azeman, Ruth Kiew, Imin Kamin, Richard Chung Cheng Kong
‡ Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), 52109 Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia
Open Access

Abstract

Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve, the oldest forest reserve in Malaysia established in 1900, lies in the center of Kuala Lumpur, the capital city. Over time it has been reduced from 17.5 ha to 9.37 ha but still retains important biodiversity. Its lowland equatorial rain forest has never been logged and tall emergent species to 35 m tall and 124 cm diameter persist. Since 1900, 499 plant species (2 lycophytes, 25 ferns, 39 monocots and 433 dicots) have been recorded. This year-long survey refound 425 species, including the rare Tarenna rudis (Rubiaceae), a local endemic found only in Selangor state. The multi-layered structure of lowland dipterocarp forest (16 Diperocarpaceae species were recorded) is intact. However, with diminishing size, the edge effect is more pronounced with secondary forest species, from trees to herbs, becoming established. In 2009, declared as the KL Forest Eco Park, it is important for its biodiversity, history, accessibility to the public for recreation (forest walks), scientific study, education (natural history, bird-watching, etc), as well as serving as a green lung in the bustling city. Baseline data, such as this survey, enables scientific management that will maintain the forest structure and biodiversity.

Keywords

Inventory, Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve, biodiversity, common species, invasive species, cultivated species

Introduction

Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve (BNFR), formerly known as the Weld Hill Forest Reserve, was gazetted in 1900 and is the oldest forest reserve in the country. In 1930, its name was changed to Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve and in 1934, it was gazetted as a Wildlife Reserve and Bird Sanctuary. In 1950, the central pristine section of about 5 ha was gazetted as a Virgin Jungle Reserve (VJR) for the purpose of research and experiment (Putz 1978). Until now, the area still remains as a VJR (JPSM 2007).

It is a historic site. During the early years of Kuala Lumpur’s formation in the 19th century, there were pitched battles between Raja Mahadi bin Raja Sulaiman and Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar (JPSM 2007). The forested hill was the site of a fort and, according to historical accounts, prickly pineapples (‘nanas’ in Malay) were planted all around the fortress to deter attackers because, at that time, soldiers were barefooted. Raja Mahadi was defeated in 1874, thus ending the war. To commemorate the war, the locals called the hill Bukit Nanas (‘bukit’ means hill). Recently, a 10-metre tunnel was discovered. It is believed that the tunnel was used to store weapons, food and perhaps even treasure and was part of a complex of underground tunnels that have disappeared over time with developments in the area (Nair 2015). Another suggestion is that during the Klang or Selangor Civil War between 1867 and 1874, the Mandahiling community used the narrow tunnel to launch surprise attacks or as an escape passage from their enemies.

Because of its accessibility, the forest has long suffered from encroachment and even war activities in the last forty years, it has seen many changes. In the late 1970s, the hill was the site of a small cable car project, but the project was scrapped soon after and the cable car service was shut down and dismantled (Kiew et al. 1985). City Hall relocated a troupe of silvered leaf monkeys (Trachypithecus cristatus) into the forest that have since become residents in the forest (The Star 1986). During 1996, about 1 ha of the area was taken up for building the KL Tower and other purposes (JPSM 2007). Today, the area of BNFR is reduced to 9.37 ha (Latiff 2010) from its original area of 17.5 ha and is now surrounded by buildings and busy roads. On 12th November 2009, Dato Sri Douglas Uggah Embas, the former Minister of Natural Resources and Environment Malaysia, officially launched this last remnant of pristine forest in Kuala Lumpur as the KL Forest Eco Park, (Latiff 2010) for three main reasons: it is the only primary lowland rain forest that still remains intact in the city; it is rich in flora and fauna (formerly it was home to the Malayan tiger and elephant, but it still harbours monkeys, pythons, squirrels, and monitor lizards and a variety of birds); and it is the oldest forest reserve in the country.

As the only remaining rain forest in the city of Kuala Lumpur, BNFR is the 'Green Lung' of Kuala Lumpur by purifying the air of its dust and toxic pollutants (Latiff 2010). It enables the general public to experience, explore and enjoy the beauty of nature. It is home to a rich variety of flora that flourishes within the forest including shrubs, trees, herbs, ferns, climbers, palms, bamboos and other indigenous plants. It is also refuge for fauna. As a recreation forest for the public, several nature trails accessible to visitors run through the forest. Facilities for visitors inside the forest include the Forest Information Centre, bird watching area, canopy walk, playground, exercise stations, picnic benches and access to the KL Tower. Entrance is free and the forest is open from 8 am until 6 pm daily.

Today, BNFR (3°09'N, 101°42'E) is a landmark in the capital city Kuala Lumpur (Fig. 1). It is a hilly area about 225 m above sea level (Putz 1978). Based on records from the Department of Forestry, the highest point on the hill itself is 280 m at the main entrance to the KL Tower. The forest experiences an equatorial climate that is hot and humid all year round. The average temperature is 26.7°C with a daily maximum of 33°C and a minimum night temperature of 24°C.

Figure 1.

Location of the Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Objectives of the study

  1. To make a comprehensive study of the vascular plants by collecting specimens and taking photos in BNFR.
  2. To assess the biodiversity value of BNFR.
  3. To assess changes in species composition in the last hundred years.
  4. To identify whether weedy or alien species have started to invade the BNFR and endanger the native species.

Materials and Methods

Data collection

This checklist is specimen-based using both herbarium specimens and specimens collected during the field survey. The earliest collections date from 1901. Major collectors were forest rangers who worked in the Forest Department include Hashim bin Mohamed, Hamid bin Mohamed Sah and Ahmad bin A. Bakar. Their collections are deposited in the Herbarium of Forest Research Institute Malaysia (KEP) and also in the Herbarium of Singapore Botanic Gardens (SING). The collections in KEP used the Forest Research Institute (FRI) numbers while collections in SING used the Conservator of Forest series numbers (CF and SFN). Herbarium specimen data from KEP for the period 1901 to 2014 was accessed using the Botanical Research and Herbarium Management System (BRAHMS) database programme. Herbarium specimen data from our current survey is accessioned in BRAHMS and for vouchers (sterile specimens) in an electronic file available in Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). Existing published plant lists, those of Henderson (1928) and the Forest Department of Kuala Lumpur (JPSM 2007), in general did not cite specimen. Some specimens on Henderson’s plant list were tracked down in SING. For others, identifications could not be verified so any considered doubtful were discarded.

Field survey

Field surveys were carried out three times per month from April 2015 until May 2016. Plant specimens were collected by exploring along existing paths and trails, namely the Jelutong, Penarahan, Suboh, Merawan and Arboretum Trails and the Bamboo Walk (Fig. 2) in such a way as to cover all types of terrain and habitats. Almost all the 9.37 ha of BNFR was inventoried. All species were collected when first sight or whenever there was doubt regarding their identity. Fertile specimens deposited in KEP herbarium were individually numbered using the FRI number series with data recorded in the KEP field collection book. Duplicates are deposited in the herbarium of Taman Botani Perdana, Kuala Lumpur City Hall. Sterile plant material was also collected and made into voucher specimens under a BN number series and are deposited in Taman Botani Perdana, Kuala Lumpur City Hall. The plants were pressed, dried and mounted on paper to serve as a permanent record (Bridson and Forman 1992). In addition, spirit collection of flowers and fruits were also made. The photographic record included images of the flowers, fruits, bark, inner bark, crown and habit.

Figure 2.

The trails in the Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Reproduced with permission from Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, JPSM).

Some parts of BNFR have been cleared for the infrastructure purposes such as the canopy walk, waterfall, kiosk, and road. This might have affected several species of forest plant. Some species recorded during the JPSM 2006 survey were not recollected during our survey and might have totally disappeared because of the clearing of the forest area. There are also several species that have been wrongly identified or only identified to genus during previous surveys. These are omitted from our checklist. In addition, indigenous plants that are cultivated by the forest management have also been excluded from the checklist to avoid future confusion about which is parts of the original flora of BNFR. Weed species are also excluded.

Species identification

Identification of specimens was made with the help of expert KEP staff and/or by comparing the specimens with those in the KEP herbarium and by consulting the literature. The main references used were the Flora of the Malay Peninsula (Ridley 1922, Ridley 1923, Ridley 1924a, Ridley 1924b, Ridley 1925), the Tree Flora of Malaya (Whitmore 1972, Whitmore 1973, Ng 1978, Ng 1989), Pocket Checklist of Timber Trees (K.M Kochummen (Wyatt-Smith 1999), Flora of Peninsular Malaysia (Kiew et al. 2010, Kiew et al. 2011, Kiew et al. 2012, Kiew et al. 2013, Kiew et al. 2015, Parris et al. 2013, Parris et al. 2010), Wayside Trees of Malaya (Corner 1988) and Plants in Tropical Cities (Min et al. 2014). Turner (Turner 1997) was used for information on species distribution. The authority of each species was checked using The Plant List (The Plant List 2016) while the name of family follow The Plant List, Turner and Flora of Peninsular Malaysia.

Endemic species are defined as being restricted to a particular place, e.g. to Peninsular Malaysia or to Selangor. Selangor is a state in Peninsular Malaysia and now surrounds the capital city of Kuala Lumpur that was once under Selangor's territorial sovereignty. Native species are defined as indigenous species; naturalised species are exotic species that are self-sustaining and have spreading populations. Common species are species that exist in large numbers and are abundant. Primary species are species that live in the undisturbed or pristine forest; secondary species are those that invade open areas of disturbed forest that is generally unstable and represents successional stages.

Assessment of conservation status

The conservation status assessment is based on the Malaysia Plant Red List 2010 (Peninsular Malaysia Dipterocarpaceae) that was derived from (Chua et al. 2010) and also Flora of Peninsular Malaysia (Kiew et al. 2010, Kiew et al. 2011, Kiew et al. 2012, Kiew et al. 2013, Kiew et al. 2015, Parris et al. 2013, Parris et al. 2010). The assessment was based on the baseline information contained in the Taxon Data Information Sheet (TDIS). The TDIS comprises scientific name, taxonomy details, common names, habitat preferences, geographical range, general distribution pattern, population decline, threats, Red List Category and Criteria, a rationale for the listing, current conservation measures, utilisation, literature used in assessment, details of assessor(s), date of assessment and names of evaluators. This information is to support the Red List category given to the study taxon. The categories and criteria in the taxon assessment follow the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1 (IUCN 2001). There are nine categories in the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Extinct (EX), Extinct in the Wild (EW), Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU), Near Threatened (NT), Least Concern (LC), Data Deficient (DD) and Not Evaluated (NE).

Results and Discussion

Collections

The flora is relatively well known botanically because prior to the establishment of the Forest Research Institute (FRI) in 1926, BNFR was the site used by the many Forest Department officers as a place to study plants (Burkill 1927). The first collections of plant specimens from BNFR, then known as the Weld Hill Forest Reserve, were made in 1901 by Charles Curtis, an English botanist in charge of the Penang Botanic Garden, and in 1908 by Hashim bin Mohamed, a Forest Ranger with the Forest Department (Steenis-Kruseman et al. 1950). Collecting peaked between 1911 and 1920 (Fig. 3) and included 354 specimens. During 1911-1920, many collections were amassed by forest ranger Hashim bin Mohamed, Hamid bin Mohd. Sah, Abdul Rahman and Ahmad bin Abu Bakar. Their collections are deposited in KEP and SING.

Figure 3.

Number of specimens collected from Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve by decade from 1901 to 2016 deposited in the national herbarium (KEP) at Forest Research Institute Malaysia.

Collecting between 1931-2014 continued sporadically by FRI botanists, majorly by Omar bin Mohamed, K.M. Kochummen and C.F. Symington after the establishment of Forest Research Institute (FRI). Specimens were deposited in KEP.

The 2006 survey by the Forestry Department of the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (JPSM 2007) produced a list of 259 species, unfortunately without citing specimens. The third peak of collectings in 2015/2016, is our survey that collected 680 specimens of which 127 were fertile herbarium specimens and 553 were voucher specimens.

Species diversity

The checklist (Table 1) includes 499 taxa from all verifiable sources, specimens are cited whenever possible, and otherwise their record is indicated by a tick. Sources include 267 monocot and dicot species listed by Henderson (1928), 299 species collected by forest ranger and FRI botanists (1901-2014), 259 species of monocot, dicot and ferns collected by the Forest Department in 2006 (JPSM 2007) and 425 angiosperms, gymnosperms, ferns and lycophytes from our 2015/2016 survey.

Checklist of the taxa recorded in the Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve from 1901 to 2016 including their category (naturalised or native), (weed or forest plant) and forest type (primary or secondary).

(BRAHMS is Kepong Databases where specimens deposited in Kepong Herbarium; Hend. are Henderson survey in 1928; FD is Forest Department survey in 2006 and 15/16 are our survey in 2015-2016. Categories 1 (C1) are abbreviated as follows: T, tree; S, shrub; H, herb; C, climber; E, epiphytes; P, palms. Categories 2 (C2) are classified into two categories: naturalised and native. Forest type (FT) is abbreviated as follows: p, primary forest; s, secondary forest).

Family

Species

BRAHMS

Hend.

FD

15/16

C1

C2

FT

Angiosperms (Dicot)

Acanthaceae

Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anders. subsp. micrantha (Nees) Ensermu

√ (BN28)

H

Naturalised

s

Acanthaceae

Lepidagathis sp. 1

√ (FRI84668)

H

Naturalised

s

Achariaceae

Hydnocarpus castanea Hook.f. & Thomson

√ (BN507)

T

Native

p

Achariaceae

Hydnocarpus kunstleri (King) Warb.

√ (KEP66647)

√ (BN375)

T

Native

p

Achariaceae

Ryparosa fasciculata King

√ (FRI63516)

√ (BN210)

T

Native

p

Achariaceae

Scaphocalyx spathacea Ridl.

√ (SFN40086)

√ (BN222)

T

Native

p

Anacardiaceae

Bouea oppositifolia (Roxb.) Adelb.

√ (FMS45820)

√ (BN459)

T

Native

p

Anacardiaceae

Dracontomelon dao (Blanco) Merr. & Rolfe

√ (BN382)

T

Native

p

Anacardiaceae

Gluta curtisii (Oliv.) Ding Hou

√ (BN320)

T

Native

p

Anacardiaceae

Gluta malayana (Corner) Ding Hou

√ (BN653)

T

Native

p

Anacardiaceae

Gluta wallichii (Hook.f.) Ding Hou

√ (BN656)

T

Native

p

Anacardiaceae

Mangifera foetida Lour.

√ (BN413)

T

Native

p

Anacardiaceae

Pentaspadon motleyi Hook.f.

√ (BN107)

T

Native

p

Anacardiaceae

Pentaspadon velutinus Hook.f.

√ (BN555)

T

Native

p

Annonaceae

Alphonsea elliptica Hook.f. & Thomson

√ (CF2832)

√ (BN671)

T

Native

p

Annonaceae

Alphonsea maingayi Hook.f. & Thomson

√ (CF41)

T

Native

p

Annonaceae

Anaxagorea javanica Blume

√ (BN162)

T

Native

p

Annonaceae

Dasymaschalon dasymaschalum (Blume) I.M.Turner

√ (BN15)

S&T

Native

p

Annonaceae

Desmos chinensis Lour.

√ (FMS2922)

√ (BN393)

S&C

Native

p

Annonaceae

Drepananthus pruniferus Maingay ex Hook.f. & Thomson

√ (FMS8539)

T

Native

p

Annonaceae

Enicosanthum fuscum (King) Airy Shaw

√ (FMS43630)

T

Native

p

Annonaceae

Phaeanthus ophthalmicus (Roxb. ex G.Don) J.Sinclair

√ (FRI26027)

√ (FRI83020)

T

Native

p

Annonaceae

Polyalthia cinnamomea Hook.f. & Thomson

√ (FMS43629)

T

Native

p

Annonaceae

Polyalthia stenopetala (Hook.f. & Thomson) Finet & Gagnep.

√ (FMS45817)

√ (BN655)

T

Native

p

Annonaceae

Popowia pisocarpa (Blume) Endl. ex Walp.

√ (CF2808)

T

Native

p

Annonaceae

Trivalvaria macrophylla (Blume) Miq.

√ (KEP98753)

T

Native

p

Annonaceae

Trivalvaria nervosa (Hook. f. & Thomson) J. Sinclair

T

Native

p

Annonaceae

Uvaria wrayi (King) L.L.Zhou, Y.C.F.Su & R.M.K.Saunders

√ (FMS4936)

√ (BN534)

S&C

Native

p

Annonaceae

Xylopia malayana Hook.f. & Thomson

√ (FMS43632)

T

Native

p

Annonaceae

Xylopia subdehiscens (King) J.Sinclair

√ (FMS10464)

T

Native

p

Apocynaceae

Alstonia angustiloba Miq.

√ (CF837)

√ (BN497)

T

Native

p

Apocynaceae

Anodendron wrayi King & Gamble

√ (BN427)

C

Native

p

Apocynaceae

Chilocarpus costatus Miq.

√ (FMS10222)

√ (BN479)

C

Native

p

Apocynaceae

Dyera costulata (Miq.) Hook.f.

√ (FMS13846)

√ (BN338)

T

Native

p

Apocynaceae

Hunteria zeylanica (Retz.) Gardner ex Thwaites

√ (FMS6406)

√ (BN537)

T

Native

p

Apocynaceae

Kibatalia maingayi (Hook.f.) Woodson

√ (FMS964)

T

Native

p

Apocynaceae

Leuconotis griffithii Hook.f.

√ (1664)

C

Native

p

Apocynaceae

Leuconotis sp. 1

√ (BN428)

C

Native

p

Apocynaceae

Strophanthus caudatus (L.) Kurz

√ (FMS1232)

S

Native

p

Apocynaceae

Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult.

√ (BN134)

S&T

Native

p

Apocynaceae

Tabernaemontana pauciflora Blume

√ (FMS2901)

S&T

Native

p

Apocynaceae

Tabernaemontana peduncularis Wall.

√ (FRI84590)

S&T

Native

p

Aquifoliaceae

Ilex maingayi Hook.f.

√ (232)

T

Native

p

Araliaceae

Polyscias jackiana (G.Don) Lowry & G.M.Plunkett

√ (KEP2882)

T

Native

s

Araliaceae

Polyscias diversifolia (Blume) Lowry & G.M.Plunkett

√ (BN668)

T

Native

p

Araliaceae

Schefflera oxyphylla (Miq.) R.Vig.

√ (KEP7440)

C

Native

p

Araliaceae

Trevesia burckii Boerl.

√ (KEP353)

√ (BN451)

S

Native

p

Aristolochiaceae

Aristolochia acuminata Lam.

√ (BN18)

C

Native

p

Aristolochiaceae

Thottea piperiformis (Griff.) Mabb.

√ (KEP1224)

S

Native

p

Aristolochiaceae

Thottea tricornis Maingay ex Hook.f.

√ (FMS3029)

√ (FRI83059)

S

Native

p

Bignoniaceae

Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz

√ (FMS6366)

T

Native

p

Burseraceae

Canarium littorale Blume

√ (BN37)

T

Native

p

Burseraceae

Canarium patentinervium Miq.

√ (CF1816)

T

Native

p

Burseraceae

Canarium pilosum A.W.Benn.

√ (CF9633)

T

Native

p

Burseraceae

Dacryodes costata (A.W.Benn.) H.J.Lam

√ (BN430)

T

Native

p

Burseraceae

Santiria apiculata A.W.Benn.

√ (FRI84673)

T

Native

p

Calophyllaceae

Kayea lepidota Pierre

√ (CF12906)

T

Native

p

Calophyllaceae

Mesua ferrea L.

√ (CF9525)

√ (BN93)

T

Native

p

Cannabaceae

Gironniera nervosa Planch.

√ (KEP17467)

√ (FRI84565)

T

Native

p

Cannabaceae

Gironniera subaequalis Planch.

√ (BN506)

T

Native

p

Cannabaceae

Trema cannabina Lour.

√ (FRI83049)

T

Native

p

Celastraceae

Salacia macrophylla Blume

√ (FRI84589)

C

Native

p

Clusiaceae

Calophyllum canum Hook.f. ex T.Anderson

√ (KEP99519)

T

Native

p

Clusiaceae

Calophyllum inophyllum L.

√ (904)

√ (BN125)

T

Native

p

Clusiaceae

Calophyllum rubiginosum M.R.Hend. & Wyatt-Sm.

√ (2615)

T

Native

p

Clusiaceae

Garcinia cowa Roxb. ex Choisy

√ (BN151)

T

Native

p

Clusiaceae

Garcinia dumosa King

√ (SFN40090)

T

Native

p

Clusiaceae

Garcinia griffithii T.Anderson

√ (BN56)

T

Native

p

Clusiaceae

Garcinia nervosa Miq.

√ (BN495)

T

Native

p

Clusiaceae

Garcinia parvifolia (Miq.) Miq.

√ (BN539)

T

Native

p

Clusiaceae

Garcinia prainiana King

√ (BN587)

T

Native

p

Clusiaceae

Garcinia hombroniana Pierre

√ (BN327)

T

Native

p

Combretaceae

Combretum sundaicum Miq.

√ (FMS11236)

S

Native

p

Combretaceae

Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.

√ (BN674)

T

Native

p

Combretaceae

Terminalia citrina Roxb. ex Fleming

√ (FMS2492)

T

Native

p

Compositae

Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L.

√ (FRI83071)

H

Naturalised

s

Compositae

Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S.Moore

√ (FRI83029)

H

Naturalised

s

Compositae

Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham.

√ (FMS128)

H

Native

p

Connaraceae

Agelaea macrophylla (Zoll.) Leenh.

√ (BN52)

C

Native

p

Connaraceae

Ellipanthus tomentosus Kurz

√ (FRI2038)

S

Native

p

Cornaceae

Alangium ebenaceum (C.B.Clarke) Harms

√ (KEP562)

T

Native

p

Cornaceae

Alangium griffithii (C.B.Clarke) Harms

√ (KEP8538)

√ (BN38)

T

Native

p

Cucurbitaceae

Melothria pendula L.

√ (FRI83061)

H

Naturalised

s

Dichapetalaceae

Dichapetalum griffithii (Hook.f.) Engl.

√ (FRI83075)

C

Native

p

Dilleniaceae

Dillenia indica L.

√ (FMS16470)

T

Native

p

Dilleniaceae

Dillenia reticulata King

√ (CF11769)

√ (BN266)

T

Native

p

Dilleniaceae

Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff.) Martelli

√ (FRI83043)

T

Native

s

Dilleniaceae

Tetracera indica (Christm. & Panz.) Merr.

√ (BN26)

C

Native

s

Dilleniaceae

Tetracera macrophylla Wall. ex Hook. f. & Thoms.

√ (FMS42948)

C

Native

p

Dilleniaceae

Tetracera scandens (L.) Merr.

√ (FMS12807)

C

Native

p

Dipterocarpaceae

Anisoptera costata Korth.

√ (32667)

√ (BN659)

T

Native

p

Dipterocarpaceae

Anisoptera marginata Korth.

√ (CF36029)

T

Native

p

Dipterocarpaceae

Dipterocarpus baudii Korth.

√ (KEP72437)

√ (FRI84566)

T

Native

p

Dipterocarpaceae

Dipterocarpus crinitus Dyer

√ (BN341)

T

Native

p

Dipterocarpaceae

Dryobalanops aromatica C.F.Gaertn.

√ (FMS24830)

√ (BN365)

T

Native

p

Dipterocarpaceae

Hopea beccariana Burck

√ (BN608)

T

Native

p

Dipterocarpaceae

Hopea mengerawan Miq.

√ (FMS14835)

T

Native

p

Dipterocarpaceae

Shorea assamica Dyer

√ (BN571)

T

Native

p

Dipterocarpaceae

Shorea bracteolata Dyer

√ (FMS5042)

√ (BN69)

T

Native

p

Dipterocarpaceae

Shorea curtisii Dyer ex King

√ (BN627)

T

Native

p

Dipterocarpaceae

Shorea dasyphylla Foxw.

√ (FMS41634)

√ (BN120)

T

Native

p

Dipterocarpaceae

Shorea glauca King

√ (BN94)

T

Native

p

Dipterocarpaceae

Shorea leprosula Miq.

√ (743)

√ (BN67)

T

Native

p

Dipterocarpaceae

Shorea ovalis Blume

√ (BN631)

T

Native

p

Dipterocarpaceae

Shorea sumatrana (Slooten) Desch

√ (FMS23202)

√ (FRI83035)

T

Native

p

Dipterocarpaceae

Vatica odorata (Griff.) Symington

√ (56714)

T

Native

p

Ebenaceae

Diospyros argentea Griff.

√ (KEP834)

√ (BN217)

T

Native

p

Ebenaceae

Diospyros maingayi (Hiern) Bakh.

√ (BN254)

T

Native

p

Ebenaceae

Diospyros pendula Hasselt ex Hassk.

√ (BN642)

T

Native

p

Ebenaceae

Diospyros sumatrana Miq.

√ (FMS8534)

T

Native

p

Ebenaceae

Diospyros wallichii King & Gamble

√ (FMS12904)

√ (FRI83062)

T

Native

p

Ebenaceae

Diospyros lanceifolia Roxb.

√ (KEP2484)

T

Native

p

Elaeocarpaceae

Elaeocarpus ferrugineus (Jack) Steud.

√ (CF2644)

T

Native

p

Elaeocarpaceae

Elaeocarpus petiolatus (Jacq.) Wall.

√ (FMS4934)

√ (BN548)

T

Native

p

Elaeocarpaceae

Elaeocarpus stipularis Blume

√ (CF899)

T

Native

p

Euphorbiaceae

Agrostistachys gaudichaudii Müll.Arg.

√ (BN99)

T

Native

p

Euphorbiaceae

Balakata baccata (Roxb.) Esser

√ (BN83)

T

Native

p

Euphorbiaceae

Botryophora geniculata (Miq.) Beumée ex Airy Shaw

√ (FMS45819)

T

Native

p

Euphorbiaceae

Cheilosa montana Blume

√ (FMS40625)

T

Native

p

Euphorbiaceae

Elateriospermum tapos Blume

√ (SFN40079)

√ (BN10)

T

Native

p

Euphorbiaceae

Endospermum diadenum (Miq.) Airy Shaw

√ (850)

√ (BN104)

T

Native

p

Euphorbiaceae

Epiprinus malayanus Griff.

√ (CF1817)

√ (BN340)

T

Native

p

Euphorbiaceae

Macaranga conifera (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Müll.Arg.

√ (FMS2852)

T

Native

s

Euphorbiaceae

Macaranga gigantea (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Müll.Arg.

√ (FRI83058)

T

Native

s

Euphorbiaceae

Macaranga tanarius (L.) Müll.Arg.

√ (BN198)

T

Native

s

Euphorbiaceae

Macaranga triloba (Thunb.) Müll.Arg.

√ (FMS43)

√ (BN215)

T

Native

s

Euphorbiaceae

Mallotus macrostachyus (Miq.) Müll.Arg.

√ (FMS10)

T

Native

s

Euphorbiaceae

Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.) Müll.Arg.

√ (FMS874)

√ (BN199)

T

Native

s

Euphorbiaceae

Neoscortechinia kingii (Hook.f.) Pax & K.Hoffm.

√ (FMS5412)

T

Native

p

Euphorbiaceae

Pimelodendron griffithianum (Müll.Arg.) Benth. ex Hook.f.

√ (FMS2804)

√ (BN589)

T

Native

p

Euphorbiaceae

Ptychopyxis costata Miq. var. oblanceolata Airy Shaw

√ (11695)

T

Native

p

Fagaceae

Castanopsis inermis (Lindl.) Benth. & Hook.f.

√ (FMS10287)

√ (BN637)

T

Native

p

Fagaceae

Castanopsis javanica (Blume) A.DC.

√ (FMS2871)

√ (BN258)

T

Native

p

Fagaceae

Castanopsis lucida (Nees) Soepadmo

√ (4737)

T

Native

p

Fagaceae

Castanopsis nephelioides King ex Hook.f.

√ (FMS1818)

T

Native

p

Fagaceae

Castanopsis wallichii King ex Hook.f.

√ (CF9631)

T

Native

p

Fagaceae

Lithocarpus curtisii (King ex Hook.f.) A.Camus

√ (FMS42949)

T

Native

p

Fagaceae

Lithocarpus ewyckii (Korth.) Rehder

√ (KEP861)

T

Native

p

Gentianaceae

Fagraea auriculata Jack

√ (908)

T

Native

p

Gentianaceae

Fagraea racemosa Jack

√ (FRI84675)

T

Native

p

Hypericaceae

Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour.) Blume

√ (FMS926)

T

Native

p

Hypericaceae

Cratoxylum formosum (Jacq.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Dyer

√ (66452)

T

Native

p

Icacinaceae

Phytocrene bracteata Wall.

√ (BN345)

T

Native

p

Ixonanthaceae

Ixonanthes icosandra Jack

√ (CF586)

√ (FRI83053)

T

Native

p

Ixonanthaceae

Ixonanthes reticulata Jack

√ (FMS40631)

√ (BN304)

T

Native

p

Lamiaceae

Clerodendrum deflexum Wall.

√ (FRI84583)

T

Native

p

Lamiaceae

Clerodendrum villosum Blume

√ (FMS8510)

T

Native

p

Lamiaceae

Rotheca serrata (L.) Steane & Mabb.

√ (CF2878)

T

Native

p

Lamiaceae

Vitex gamosepala Griff.

√ (BN73)

T

Native

s

Lamiaceae

Vitex longisepala King & Gamble

√ (CF15349)

T

Native

p

Lamiaceae

Vitex vestita Wall. ex Schauer

√ (CF2951)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Actinodaphne macrophylla (Blume) Nees

√ (FRI2036)

√ (FRI84580)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook.f. & Thomson ex Meisn.

√ (CF607)

√ (BN227)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Alseodaphne peduncularis (Wall. ex Nees) Meisn.

√ (FMS9565)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Beilschmiedia madang Blume

√ (66648)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Beilschmiedia perakensis Gamble

√ (FMS2803)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Cinnamomum iners Reinw.

√ (CF583)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Cryptocarya griffithiana Wight

√ (FMS12647)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Cryptocarya nitens (Blume) Koord. & Valeton

√ (CF977)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Lauraceae sp. 1

√ (BN614)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Lindera lucida Boerl.

√ (CF851)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Litsea castanea Hook.f.

√ (FRI2030)

√ (FRI84670)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Litsea costalis (Nees) Kosterm.

√ (FMS2914)

√ (FRI84578)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Litsea elliptica Blume

√ (FMS10938)

√ (BN561)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Litsea ferruginea Blume

√ (FMS5028)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Litsea sp. 1

√ (BN556)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Litsea spathacea Gamble

√ (CF860)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Litsea tomentosa Blume

√ (975)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Litsea umbellata (Lour.) Merr.

√ (FMS11718)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Neolitsea zeylanica (Nees & T. Nees) Merr.

√ (CF871)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Nothaphoebe umbelliflora (Blume) Blume

√ (BN352)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Phoebe elliptica (Blume) Blume

√ (CF7971)

T

Native

p

Lauraceae

Phoebe grandis (Nees) Merr.

√ (FMS3010)

√ (BN485)

T

Native

p

Lecythidaceae

Barringtonia fusiformis King

√ (BN187)

T

Native

p

Lecythidaceae

Barringtonia macrostachya (Jack) Kurz

√ (CF915)

√ (BN457)

T

Native

p

Lecythidaceae

Barringtonia scortechinii King

√ (FMS11693)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Albizia splendens Miq.

√ (FMS2822)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Archidendron bubalinum (Jack) I.C.Nielsen

√ (FMS45822)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Archidendron clypearia (Jack) I.C.Nielsen

√ (FRI16586)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Archidendron ellipticum (Blanco) I.C.Nielsen

√ (FMS2809)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Archidendron jiringa (Jack) I.C.Nielsen

√ (BN273)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Bauhinia audax (de Wit) G.Cusset

√ (FMS2473)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Bauhinia integrifolia Roxb.

√ (CF7957)

√ (BN453)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Callerya atropurpurea (Wall.) Schot

√ (BN572)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Crudia curtisii Prain

√ (CF576)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Cynometra cauliflora L.

√ (BN172)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Cynometra malaccensis Meeuwen

√ (CF832)

√ (BN259)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Dialium platysepalum Baker

√ (FRI84671)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & J.W.Grimes

√ (FMS2867)

√ (BN31)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Fordia albiflora (Prain) Dasuki & Schot

√ (FMS10465)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) Kuntze

√ (BN213)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Ormosia polita Prain

√ (CF2866)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Parkia speciosa Hassk.

√ (CF2858)

√ (FRI84551)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Saraca declinata Miq.

√ (BN570)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Senna sulfurea (Collad.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby

√ (FMS1197)

T

Naturalised

s

Leguminosae

Senna hirsuta (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby

√ (CF2884)

T

Naturalised

s

Leguminosae

Sindora coriacea (Baker) Prain

√ (BN516)

T

Native

p

Leguminosae

Sindora wallichii Benth.

√ (CF10466)

T

Native

p

Loganiaceae

Norrisia maior Soler.

√ (FMS43)

√ (BN470)

T

Native

p

Loranthaceae

Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser

√ (BN615)

E

Native

s

Magnoliaceae

Magnolia montana (Blume) Figlar

√ (FRI83040)

T

Native

p

Malvaceae

Coelostegia griffithii Benth.

√ (BN494)

T

Native

p

Malvaceae

Commersonia bartramia (L.) Merr.

√ (CF898)

T

Native

s

Malvaceae

Durio griffithii (Mast.) Bakh.

√ (FMS42950)

√ (FRI83067)

T

Native

p

Malvaceae

Grewia laevigata Vahl

√ (BN504)

T

Native

p

Malvaceae

Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem.

T

Native

p

Malvaceae

Kostermansia malayana Soegeng

T

Native

p

Malvaceae

Microcos tomentosa Sm.

√ (BN34)

T

Native

s

Malvaceae

Neesia malayana Bakh.

√ (BN649)

T

Native

p

Malvaceae

Pterocymbium tinctorium (Blanco) Merr.

√ (BN214)

T

Native

p

Malvaceae

Scaphium macropodum (Miq.) Beumée ex K.Heyne

√ (BN128)

T

Native

p

Malvaceae

Schoutenia accrescens (Mast.) Curtis

√ (BN137)

T

Native

p

Malvaceae

Sterculia coccinea Jack

√ (FRI84582)

T

Native

p

Malvaceae

Sterculia cordata Blume

√ (BN331)

T

Native

p

Malvaceae

Sterculia hispidissima Ridl.

√ (BN408)

T

Native

p

Malvaceae

Sterculia megistophylla Ridl.

√ (BN518)

T

Native

p

Malvaceae

Sterculia parviflora Roxb.

√ (BN523)

T

Native

p

Malvaceae

Sterculia rubiginosa Vent.

√ (BN264)

T

Native

p

Malvaceae

Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Corrêa

√ (BN367)

T

Native

p

Melastomataceae

Dissochaeta intermedia Blume var. intermedia

√ (FRI84672)

T

Native

p

Melastomataceae

Memecylon campanulatum C.B.Clarke

√ (BN219)

T

Native

p

Melastomataceae

Memecylon excelsum Blume

√ (BN376)

T

Native

p

Melastomataceae

Memecylon lilacinum Zoll. & Moritzi

√ (FRI32199)

√ (FRI84669)

T

Native

p

Melastomataceae

Oxyspora bullata J.F.Maxwell

√ (SFN40084)

√ (FRI84557)

T

Native

p

Melastomataceae

Phyllagathis rotundifolia (Jack) Blume

√ (BN163)

T

Native

p

Melastomataceae

Pternandra echinata Wall.

T

Native

p

Meliaceae

Aglaia edulis (Roxb.) Wall.

√ (FMS2814)

T

Native

p

Meliaceae

Aglaia lawii (Wight) C.J.Saldanha ex Ramamoorthy

√ (CF809)

T

Native

p

Meliaceae

Aglaia leucophylla King

√ (CF2819)

T

Native

p

Meliaceae

Aglaia tenuicaulis Hiern

√ (CF2479)

T

Native

p

Meliaceae

Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) R.Parker

√ (FMS12909)

T

Native

p

Meliaceae

Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) Jacobs

√ (BN629)

T

Native

p

Meliaceae

Chisocheton ceramicus Miq.

√ (FMS2844)

T

Native

p

Meliaceae

Chisocheton patens Blume

√ (FMS10463)

√ (BN260)

T

Native

p

Meliaceae

Chisocheton sarawakanus (C.DC.) Harms

√ (FMS1837)

T

Native

p

Meliaceae

Chisocheton sp. 1

√ (BN634)

T

Native

p

Meliaceae

Dysoxylum densiflorum (Blume) Miq.

√ (CF868)

T

Native

p

Meliaceae

Dysoxylum excelsum Blume

√ (FMS256)

T

Native

p

Meliaceae

Dysoxylum grande Hiern

√ (KEP2433)

T

Native

p

Meliaceae

Melia azedarach L.

√ (CF864)

T

Native

p

Meliaceae

Sandoricum koetjape (Burm.f.) Merr.

√ (KEP66451)

√ (BN88)

T

Native

p

Meliaceae

Toona sureni (Blume) Merr.

√ (BN652)

T

Native

p

Menispermaceae

Coscinium fenestratum (Goetgh.) Colebr

√ (BN492)

C

Native

p

Menispermaceae

Fibraurea tinctoria Lour.

√ (FRI84572)

C

Native

p

Moraceae

Antiaris toxicaria Lesch.

√ (BN423)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Artocarpus dadah Miq.

√ (BN79)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume

√ (BN512)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

√ (FRI84595)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Artocarpus hispidus F.M.Jarrett

√ (BN51)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr.

√ (BN632)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Artocarpus nitidus Trécul

√ (FMS10268)

√ (BN201)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Artocarpus rigidus Blume

√ (FRI83042)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Artocarpus scortechinii King

√ (BN378)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Ficus aurata (Miq.) Miq.

√ (CF819)

T

Native

s

Moraceae

Ficus chartacea (Wall. ex Kurz) Wall. ex King

√ (FMS8503)

√ (BN57)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Ficus deltoidea Jack

√ (BN136)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Ficus glandulifera (Wall. ex Miq.) King

√ (FMS5426)

√ (BN48)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Ficus globosa Blume

√ (FMS4701)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Ficus grossularioides Burm.f.

√ (FRI83068)

T

Native

s

Moraceae

Ficus hispida L.f.

√ (FMS12809)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Ficus lepicarpa Blume

√ (BN29)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Ficus microcarpa L.f.

√ (BN122)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Ficus punctata Thunb.

√ (KEP93476)

√ (BN354)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Ficus scortechinii King

√ (CF2337)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Ficus variegata Blume.

√ (FRI84568)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Ficus vasculosa Wall. ex Miq.

√ (TN289)

√ (FRI84552)

T

Native

p

Moraceae

Streblus elongatus (Miq.) Corner

√ (CF15387)

√ (BN425)

T

Native

p

Myristicaceae

Endocomia canarioides (King) W.J.de Wilde

√ (BN164)

T

Native

p

Myristicaceae

Horsfieldia irya (Gaertn.) Warb.

√ (BN588)

T

Native

p

Myristicaceae

Horsfieldia majuscula Warb.

√ (BN268)

T

Native

p

Myristicaceae

Horsfieldia punctatifolia J.Sinclair

√ (KEP76145)

T

Native

p

Myristicaceae

Horsfieldia sparsa W.J.de Wilde

√ (FMS11697)

T

Native

p

Myristicaceae

Horsfieldia superba Warb.

√ (CF7973)

T

Native

p

Myristicaceae

Knema furfuracea (Hook. f. & Thomson) Warb.

√ (CF934)

T

Native

p

Myristicaceae

Knema malayana Warb.

√ (CF825)

T

Native

p

Myristicaceae

Knema patentinervia (J.Sinclair) W.J.de Wilde

√ (CF561)

√ (BN232)

T

Native

p

Myristicaceae

Knema pseudolaurina W.J.de Wilde

√ (FMS40627)

√ (BN233)

T

Native

p

Myrsinaceae

Ardisia sessilis Scheff.

√ (KEP17468)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Decaspermum fruticosum J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

√ (FMS5411)

T

Native

s

Myrtaceae

Rhodamnia cinerea Jack

√ (KEP8526)

√ (BN82)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium sp. 7

√ (FMS10211)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum

√ (CF855)

√ (FRI84653)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium sp. 1

√ (BN387)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium sp. 2

√ (BN456)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium sp. 3

√ (BN540)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium sp. 4

√ (BN569)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium sp. 5

√ (BN654)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium sp. 6

√ (BN670)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium attenuatum (Miq.) Merr. & L.M.Perry

√ (BN197)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium borneense (Miq.) Miq.

√ (FMS6407)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium diospyrifolium (Wall. ex Duthie) S.N.Mitra

√ (BN660)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium fastigiatum (Blume) Merr. & L.M.Perry

√ (FMS5191)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium filiforme Wall. ex Duthie var. clavimyrtus I.M.Turner

√ (FMS894)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium grande (Wight) Walp.

√ (FRI83015)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium inophyllum DC.

√ (FRI2033)

√ (FRI83065)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium jasminifolium (Ridl.) Chantaran. & J.Parn.

√ (FRI53229)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry

√ (BN156)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium scortechinii (King) Chantaran. & J.Parn.

√ (FMS2934)

T

Native

p

Myrtaceae

Syzygium subdecussatum (Duthie) I.M.Turner

√ (FMS1010)

√ (BN78)

T

Native

p

Olacaceae

Erythropalum scandens Blume

√ (BN288.1)

T

Native

p

Olacaceae

Ochanostachys amentacea Mast.

√ (KEP72438)

√ (BN58)

T

Native

p

Olacaceae

Strombosia javanica Blume

√ (CF2817)

√ (BN13)

T

Native

p

Onagraceae

Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G.Don) Exell

√ (FRI83072)

H

Naturalised

s

Opiliaceae

Champereia manillana (Blume) Merr.

√ (CF1666)

√ (BN22)

T

Native

p

Opiliaceae

Lepionurus sylvestris Blume

√ (CF7954)

T

Native

p

Pandaceae

Galearia fulva (Tul.) Miq.

√ (KEP1786)

√ (FRI83024)

T

Native

p

Pandaceae

Microdesmis caseariifolia Planch. ex Hook.

√ (TN223)

T

Native

p

Passifloraceae

Paropsia varecifomis (Griff.) Mast.

√ (BN278)

T

Native

p

Actinidiaceae

Saurauia pentapetala (Jack) Hoogland

√ (FMS4574)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Antidesma cuspidatum Müll.Arg.

√ (FMS12903)

√ (FRI84556)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Aporosa aurea Hook.f.

√ (FRI84559)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Aporosa benthamiana Hook.f.

√ (FMS4739)

√ (BN312)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Aporosa frutescens Blume

√ (BN161)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Aporosa miqueliana Müll.Arg.

√ (FMS4935)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Aporosa penangensis (Ridl.) Airy Shaw

√ (CF11688)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Aporosa stellifera Hook.f.

√ (FMS15350)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Aporosa bracteosa Pax & K.Hoffm.

√ (FMS4576)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Aporosa symplocoides (Hook.f.) Gage

√ (CF217)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Baccaurea brevipes Hook.f.

√ (FMS8505)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Baccaurea macrophylla (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.

√ (CF924)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Baccaurea motleyana (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.

√ (BN44)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Baccaurea parviflora (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.

√ (BN225)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Baccaurea kunstleri King ex Gage

√ (FMS2879)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Baccaurea hookeri Gage

√ (FMS2838)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Bridelia tomentosa Blume

√ (CF804)

√ (BN284)

T

Native

s

Phyllanthaceae

Glochidion glomerulatum (Miq.) Boerl.

√ (FMS2906)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Glochidion hypoleucum (Miq.) Boerl.

√ (CF893)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Glochidion obscurum (Roxb. ex Willd.) Blume

√ (FMS12808)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Glochidion rubrum Blume

√ (BN482)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Glochidion superbum Baill. ex Müll.Arg.

√ (CF907)

T

Native

p

Phyllanthaceae

Phyllanthus niruri L.

√ (FRI83039)

H

Native

s

Phyllanthaceae

Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr.

√ (FRI83045)

T

Native

p

Piperaceae

Piper caninum Blume

√ (FMS8533)

√ (FRI84584)

H

Native

p

Piperaceae

Piper porphyrophyllum N.E.Br.

√ (CF568)

H

Native

p

Piperaceae

Piper sarmentosum Roxb.

√ (BN91)

H

Native

p

Polygalaceae

Xanthophyllum maingayi Benn.

√ (CF846)

T

Native

p

Polygalaceae

Xanthophyllum griffithii Hook.f. ex A.W.Benn.

√ (FMS905)

T

Native

p

Polygalaceae

Xanthophyllum stipitatum A.W.Benn.

√ (CF606)

T

Native

p

Polygalaceae

Xanthophyllum flavescens Roxb.

√ (CF2483)

√ (FRI84594)

T

Native

p

Polygalaceae

Xanthophyllum venosum King

√ (FMS11715)

T

Native

p

Primulaceae

Ardisia colorata Roxb.

√ (FRI84652)

T

Native

p

Primulaceae

Ardisia pachysandra (Wall.) Mez

√ (KEP2805)

T

Native

p

Primulaceae

Maesa ramentacea (Roxb.) A. DC.

√ (KEP12901)

T

Native

p

Rhamnaceae

Gouania javanica Miq.

√ (FMS2345)

Native

p

Rhamnaceae

Ventilago gladiata Pierre

√ (FRI29246)

√ (BN452)

C

Native

p

Rhamnaceae

Ventilago oblongifolia Blume

√ (FMS2481)

C

Native

p

Rhizophoraceae

Carallia suffruticosa Ridl.

√ (BN546)

T

Native

p

Rhizophoraceae

Gynotroches axillaris Blume

√ (BN467)

T

Native

p

Rhizophoraceae

Pellacalyx saccardianus Scort.

√ (FMS32668)

√ (BN272)

T

Native

p

Rosaceae

Prunus polystachya (Hook.f.) Kalkman

√ (TN222)

√ (BN308)

T

Native

p

Rosaceae

Rosaceae sp. 1

√ (BN582)

T

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Canthium depressinerve Ridl.

√ (CF668)

T

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Ixora kingstonii Hook.f.

√ (KEP4941)

T

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Aidia densiflora (Wall.) Masam.

√ (FRI32200)

√ (FRI83054)

T

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Canthium confertum Korth.

√ (KEP4577)

T

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Canthium glabrum Blume

√ (KEP2592)

T

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Canthium horridum Blume

√ (FRI84592)

T

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Chassalia chartacea Craib

√ (KEP992)

√ (BN020)

T

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Greenea commersonii (Korth.) Tange ex Ruhsam

√ (KEP8248)

T

Native

s

Rubiaceae

Greenea corymbosa (Jack) Voigt

√ (914)

√ (BN102)

T

Native

s

Rubiaceae

Guettarda speciosa L.

√ (BN212)

T

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Hedyotis philippinensis (Willd. ex Spreng.) Merr. ex C.B.Rob.

√ (BN388)

H

Native

s

Rubiaceae

Ixora congesta Roxb.

√ (KEP1783)

√ (BN437)

S

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Ixora pendula Jack

√ (KEP2406)

S

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Lasianthus oblongus King & Gamble

√ (976)

T

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Metadina trichotoma (Zoll. & Moritzi) Bakh.f.

√ (BN618)

T

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Morinda citrifolia L.

√ (BN180)

T

Native

s

Rubiaceae

Mussaenda maingayi (Hook.f.) Hemsl. ex B.D.Jacks.

√ (KEP3896)

T

native

s

Rubiaceae

Nauclea orientalis (L.) L.

√ (BN515)

T

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Hedyotis dichotoma Cav.

√ (FRI83069)

H

Native

s

Rubiaceae

Oxyceros fragrantissimus (Ridl.) K.M.Wong

√ (BN601)

T

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Pertusadina eurhyncha (Miq.) Ridsdale

√ (KEP40637)

√ (BN223)

T

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Porterandia anisophylla (Jack ex Roxb.) Ridl.

√ (KEP11723)

T

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Psychotria penangiana (BRAHMS)

√ (KEP2900)

S

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Psychotria viridiflora Reinw. ex Blume

√ (FRI84579)

S

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Psydrax nitidum (Craib) K.M.Wong

√ (FRI83022)

S

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae sp. 1

√ (BN298)

S

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae sp. 2

√ (BN410)

S

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Tarenna rudis Ridl.

√ (FRI84591)

S

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Timonius wallichianus (Korth.) Valeton

√ (FRI32201)

√ (FRI84563)

S

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schult.) DC.

√ (BN473)

C

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Urophyllum glabrum Jack ex Wall.

√ (FRI83074)

S

Native

p

Rubiaceae

Urophyllum blumeanum (Wight) Hook.f.

√ (FMS84)

S

Native

p

Rutaceae

Glycosmis chlorosperma (Blume) Spreng.

√ (FRI16588)

√ (FRI84574)

T

Native

p

Rutaceae

Maclurodendron porteri (Hook. f.) T.G. Hartley

√ (KEP99520)

√ (BN165)

T

Native

p

Rutaceae

Melicope glabra (Blume) T.G. Hartley

√ (FMS2452)

T

Native

p

Rutaceae

Melicope latifolia (DC.) T.G. Hartley

√ (FMS11701)

T

Native

p

Rutaceae

Melicope macrocarpa (King) T.G. Hartley

√ (FMS2828)

T

Native

p

Rutaceae

Micromelum minutum Wight & Arn.

√ (BN116)

T

Native

p

Rutaceae

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.

√ (BN360)

T

Native

p

Salicaceae

Casearia capitellata Blume

√ (CF259)

T

Native

p

Salicaceae

Casearia clarkei var. kunstleri (King) Ridl.

√ (CF827)

T

Native

p

Salicaceae

Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi

√ (FRI84667)

T

Native

p

Salicaceae

Homalium grandiflorum Benth.

√ (CF608)

T

Native

p

Sapindaceae

Pometia pinnata J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

√ (FMS4965)

√ (BN132)

T

Native

p

Sapindaceae

Arytera littoralis Blume

√ (CF85)

√ (FRI84654)

T

Native

p

Sapindaceae

Lepisanthes amoena (Hassk.) Leenh.

√ (CF884)

T

Native

p

Sapindaceae

Lepisanthes fruticosa (Roxb.) Leenh.

√ (CF2826)

√ (BN476)

T

Native

p

Sapindaceae

Lepisanthes rubiginosa (Roxb.) Leenh.

√ (BN76)

T

Native

p

Sapindaceae

Lepisanthes tetraphylla Radlk.

√ (FMS10218)

T

Native

p

Sapindaceae

Mischocarpus pentapetalus (Roxb.) Radlk.

√ (KEP45818)

T

Native

p

Sapindaceae

Nephelium cuspidatum Blume

√ (BN478)

T

Native

p

Sapindaceae

Nephelium maingayi Hiern.

√ (TN77)

√ (BN595)

T

Native

p

Sapindaceae

Xerospermum laevigatum Radlk.

√ (BN305)

T

Native

p

Sapindaceae

Xerospermum intermedium Radlk.

√ (KEP1002)

T

Native

p

Sapindaceae

Xerospermum noronhianum Blume

√ (CF1002)

T

Native

p

Sapotaceae

Chrysophyllum lanceolatum A.DC.

√ (KEP5404)

T

Native

p

Sapotaceae

Madhuca korthalsii (Pierre ex Burck) H.J.Lam

√ (KEP8522)

√ (BN513)

T

Native

p

Sapotaceae

Madhuca malaccensis (C.B.Clarke) H.J.Lam

√ (BN650)

T

Native

p

Sapotaceae

Palaquium gutta (Hook.) Baill.

√ (KEP3897)

√ (BN480)

T

Native

Sapotaceae

Palaquium maingayi (C.B.Clarke) Engl.

√ (KEP11716)

√ (BN445)

T

Native

p

Sapotaceae

Palaquium obovatum (Griff.) Engl.

√ (FRI2035)

√ (BN9)

T

Native

p

Sapotaceae

Palaquium oxleyanum Pierre

√ (KEP4940)

T

Native

p

Sapotaceae

Payena lucida A.DC.

√ (KEP823)

T

Native

p

Sapotaceae

Pouteria maingayi

√ (FRI2034)

T

Native

p

Sapotaceae

Pouteria malaccensis (C.B.Clarke) Baehni

√ (KEP11724)

√ (BN651)

T

Native

p

Staphyleaceae

Dalrympelea sphaerocarpa (Hassk.) Nor-Ezzaw.

√ (CF64)

T

Native

p

Stemonuraceae

Gomphandra quadrifida (Blume) Sleumer

√ (CF2897)

√ (FRI83060)

T

Native

p

Stemonuraceae

Medusanthera gracilis (King) Sleumer

√ (FRI84564)

T

Native

p

Stemonuraceae

Stemonurus malaccensis (Mast.) Sleumer

√ (FRI52858)

T

Native

p

Stemonuraceae

Stemonurus umbellatus Becc.

√ (FRI83016)

T

Native

p

Styracaceae

Styrax benzoin Dryand.

√ (BN343)

T

Native

p

Symplocaceae

Symplocos adenophylla Wall. ex G. Don

√ (BN431)

T

Native

p

Thymelaeaceae

Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.

√ (FMS9537)

√ (BN245)

T

Native

p

Thymelaeaceae

Gonystylus confusus Airy Shaw

√ (BN597)

T

Native

p

Torricelliaceae

Aralidium pinnatifidum (Jungh. & de Vriese) Miq.

√ (KEP2496)

T

Native

p

Trigoniaceae

Trigoniastrum hypoleucum Miq.

√ (CF2480)

T

Native

p

Urticaceae

Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr.

√ (BN623.1)

T

Native

p

Vitaceae

Tetrastigma rafflesiae Planch.

√ (FRI29249)

C

Native

p

Vitaceae

Ampelocissus cinnamomea (Wall. ex M.A.Lawson) Planch.

√ (FMS10223)

√ (BN600)

C

Native

p

Vitaceae

Nothocissus spicifera (Griff.) Latiff

√ (BN502)

C

Native

p

Vitaceae

Cayratia mollissima (Planch.) Gagnep.

√ (BN450)

C

Native

p

Vitaceae

Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr.

√ (FRI83031)

S

Native

s

Angiosperms (Monocots)

Araceae

Rhaphidophora sylvestris (Blume) Engl.

√ (FRI83063)

C

Native

p

Araceae

Syngonium podophyllum Schott

√ (FRI83026)

C

Naturalised

s

Araceae

Aglaonema nitidum (Jack) Kunth

√ (BN234)

H

Native

p

Araceae

Aglaonema simplex (Blume) Blume

√ (FRI84560)

H

Native

p

Araceae

Amydrium medium (Zoll. & Moritzi) Nicolson

√ (FRI83017)

C

Native

p

Araceae

Anadendrum marginatum Schott

√ (FRI83073)

C

Native

p

Araceae

Anadendrum microstachyum (de Vriese & Miq.) Backer & Alderw.

√ (FRI84593)

C

Native

p

Araceae

Epipremnum sp. 1

√ (BN240)

C

Native

p

Araceae

Schismatoglottis scortechinii Hook.f.

√ (BN455)

H

Native

p

Araceae

Scindapsus hederaceus Miq.

√ (FRI83066)

C

Native

p

Araceae

Scindapsus pictus Hassk.

√ (BN645)

C

Native

p

Arecaceae

Arenga obtusifolia Mart.

√ (BN362)

P

Native

p

Arecaceae

Arenga westerhoutii Griff.

√ (BN464)

P

Native

p

Arecaceae

Caryota mitis Lour.

√ (BN179)

P

Native

p

Arecaceae

Korthalsia rigida Blume

√ (BN474)

P

Native

p

Arecaceae

Oncosperma horridum (Griff.) Scheff.

√ (BN472)

P

Native

p

Asparagaceae

Dracaena reflexa Lam.

√ (BN421)

S

Native

p

Asparagaceae

Dracaena angustifolia (Medik.) Roxb.

√ (BN415)

S

Native

p

Asparagaceae

Peliosanthes teta Andrews

√ (BN143)

H

Native

p

Commelinaceae

Commelina attenuata K.D.Koenig ex Vahl

√ (FMS13838)

H

Native

p

Costaceae

Cheilocostus speciosus (J.Koenig) C.D.Specht

√ (BN190)

S

Native

s

Cyperaceae

Mapania cuspidata (Miq.) Uittien

√ (BN139)

H

Native

p

Cyperaceae

Mapania palustris (Hassk. ex Steud.) Fern.-Vill.

√ (BN50)

H

Native

p

Cyperaceae

Hypolytrum nemorum (Vahl) Spreng.

√ (FRI83025)

H

Native

p

Dioscoreaceae

Tacca integrifolia Ker Gawl.

√ (BN40)

H

Native

p

Musaceae

Musa acuminata Colla

√ (FRI83064)

H

Native

s

Orchidaceae

Dendrobium crumenatum Sw.

√ (BN174)

E

Native

s

Orchidaceae

Apostasia nuda R.Br.

√ (FMS36030)

H

Native

p

Oxalidaceae

Sarcotheca griffithii Hallier f.

√ (157)

T

Native

p

Smilacaceae

Smilax megacarpa A.DC.

√ (BN463)

C

Native

p

Smilacaceae

Smilax myosotiflora A.DC.

√ (BN291)

C

Native

p

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC.

√ (CF6)

H

Native

p

Zingiberaceae

Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm.

√ (BN142)

H

Native

p

Zingiberaceae

Alpinia sp. 1

√ (BN466)

H

Native

p

Zingiberaceae

Elettariopsis sp.1

√ (BN55)

H

Native

p

Zingiberaceae

Elettariopsis triloba (Gagnep.) Loes.

√ (FRI83034)

H

Native

p

Zingiberaceae

Globba pendula Roxb.

√ (KEP51743)

H

Native

p

Zingiberaceae

Globba aurantiaca Miq.

√ (FMS4973)

H

Native

p

Zingiberaceae

Globba variabilis Ridl.

√ (CF594)

H

Native

p

Ferns

Adiantaceae

Adiantum latifolium Lam.

√ (FRI83018)

H

Naturalised

s

Aspleniaceae

Asplenium nidus L.

√ (BN126)

E

Native

p

Blechnaceae

Stenochlaena palustris (Burm. f.) Bedd.

√ (BN357)

E

Native

p

Cyatheaceae

Cyathea latebrosa (Wall. ex Hook.) Copel.

√ (FRI83030)

H

Native

s

Cyatheaceae

Cyathea alternans Hook.

√ (BN477)

H

Native

p

Davalliaceae

Davallia denticulata (Burm. f.) Mett. ex Kuhn

√ (FRI84598)

E

Native

s

Gleicheniaceae

Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw.

√ (BN334)

H

Native

s

Lygodiaceae

Lygodium circinatum (Burm. f.) Sw.

√ (BN454)

C

Native

p

Lygodiaceae

Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br.

√ (FRI83032)

C

Native

s

Nephrolepidaceae

Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott

√ (BN196)

H

Native

s

Polypodiaceae

Drynaria sparsisora (Desv.) T. Moore

√ (BN184)

H&E

Native

s

Polypodiaceae

Microsorum punctatum (L.) Copel.

√ (FRI84569)

E

Native

p

Polypodiaceae

Platycerium coronarium (Mull.) Desv.

√ (BN646)

E

Native

p

Polypodiaceae

Pyrrosia piloselloides (L.) M.G. Price

√ (FMS11184)

E

Native

s

Pteridaceae

Pteris vittata L.

√ (FRI83028)

H

Native

s

Pteridaceae

Taenitis blechnoides (Willd.) Sw.

√ (FRI83021)

H

Native

p

Tectariaceae

Pleocnemia irregularis (C. Presl) Holttum

√ (BN12)

H

Native

s

Tectariaceae

Tectaria fissa (Kunze) Holttum

√ (SFN40078)

H

Native

p

Tectariaceae

Tectaria oligophylla (Rosenst.) C. Chr.

√ (FRI83019)

H

Native

p

Tectariaceae

Tectaria semipinnata (Roxb.) C.V. Morton

√ (83056)

H

Native

p

Tectariaceae

Tectaria singaporiana (Wall. ex Hook. & Grev.) Ching

√ (BN399)

H

Native

p

Thelypteridaceae

Christella parasitica H.Lev.

√ (BN487)

H

Native

p

Thelypteridaceae

Pronephrium menisciicarpon (Blume) Holttum

√ (BN277)

H

Native

p

Thelypteridaceae

Pronephrium rubicundum (Alderw.) Holttum

√ (BN411)

H

Native

p

Woodsiaceae

Diplazium crenato-serratum T. Moore

√ (BN519)

H

Native

p

Lycophytes

Selaginellaceae

Selaginella wallichii (Hook. & Grev.) Spring

√ (BN372)

H

Native

p

Selaginellaceae

Selaginella willdenowii (Desv. ex Poir.) Baker

H

Native

p

The checklist records a total of 499 plant taxa collected from BNFR corresponding to 2 lycophytes, 25 ferns, 39 monocot and 433 dicots (Table 2).

Number of native and naturalised taxa recorded in Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve for the different biological groups.

Biological groups

Native

Naturalised

Total

Lycophytes

2

0

Ferns

24

1

499

Angiosperms (Monocots)

38

1

Angiosperms (Dicots)

425

8

The most speciose families in BNFR are Rubiaceae (32 taxa), Moraceae (23 taxa), Leguminosae (22 taxa), Myrtaceae (21 taxa), Dipterocarpaceae (16 taxa) and Euphorbiaceae (16 taxa). The largest monocot family is Araceae (11 taxa) including Aglaonema (2 taxa), Amydrium (1 taxa), Anadendrum (2 taxa), Epipremnum (1 taxa), Rhaphidophora (1 taxa), Schismatoglottis (1 taxa), Scindapsus (2 taxa) and Syngonium (1 taxa). The largest genera collected in BNFR are Syzygium (19 taxa), followed by Ficus (13 taxa), Shorea (8 taxa), Artocarpus (8 taxa), Garcinia (7 taxa) and Sterculia (6 taxa).

Among the ferns, Tectariaceae is the largest family with 5 species, followed by the Polypodiaceae with 4 species. Tectaria is the most speciose genus with 4 species. Only two species of lycophytes are recorded from BNFR: Selaginella wallichii and Selaginella willdenowii. Selaginella wallichii was found under the forest canopy but S. willdenowii grows in disturbed areas of BNFR.

Adiantum latifolium under the fern family is one of the naturalised species found in BNFR. This species is native to tropical America and naturalised in BNFR on the forest floor and disturbed area. Only one species, Syngonium podophyllum from the monocot species become naturalised on BNFR.

Graph in (Fig. 4) shown during the second decade in between 1911 to 1920, number of species increase is 127, followed by 1921 to 1930 with 117 species because in 1928 Henderson had done his survey at BNFR. After two decades, there is no new species recorded in that area since there are no significant declining or increasing number of species until year 2000. The reduction of species collected at BNFR are caused by the decrease in number of research and researcher during that period. Most of the researchers expanded their study site to other forest in Malaysia.

Figure 4.

Graph shown the increase number of species by decade at Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve from 1901 to 2016.

Almost 100 years later, in 2006, forest department done their survey in BNFR and recorded another 51 species. After that, our completed survey in 2015 to 2016 that covered all the trees, shrubs and herbs in Bukit Nanas area shown the highest peak of new collection of the species. Our survey collected 159 new record species including Syzygium, Tabernaemontana, Sterculia, Smilax, Ficus, Garcinia, Artocarpus and others. We also have the additional Dipterocarpaceae family which is Shorea glauca and Shorea assamica. In the monocot categories, we make many collections on Araceae family like Scindapsus hederaceus, Schismatoglottis scortechinii, Aglaonema simplex, Aglaonema nitidum and also Zingiberaceae (Zingiber zerumbet). Our collections were higher than other collections because we did the inventory regularly (3 times per month) and involved the expert around us to identify the species. Many of the collections before are not fully identified and they only focus on certain groups of plants and preliminary survey.

Forest structure

It is quite a surprise to still find some enormous trees in BNFR that appear to be several hundred years old (Table 3). From its structure and species composition BNFR is lowland dipterocarp forest (Saw 2010) and it has retained the typical three tree layers including the upper layer of emergent trees, the main stratum about 24-36 m high; and the lower layer with smaller, shade-tolerant trees and immature trees of the upper two layers, and below the shrub and herb layers. According to JPSM (2007), BNFR never been logged and because of these, the big emergent trees still exist.

Big trees with the diameter at breast height (DBH) more than 50 cm in BNFR during FRIM survey 2015-2016.

DBH (cm)

Family

Species

Local name

124

Moraceae

Ficus vasculosa

Ara

120

Apocynaceae

Dyera costulata

Jelutong

120

Dipterocarpaceae

Dryobalanops aromatica

Kapur

110

Dipterocarpaceae

Shorea bracteolata

Meranti pa’ang

110

Malvaceae

Neesia malayana

Bengang

108

Dipterocarpaceae

Shorea sumatrana

Balau sengkawang ayer

105

Sapotaceae

Palaquium obovatum

Nyatoh

100

Calophyllaceae

Mesua ferrea

Penaga lilin

100

Olacaceae

Ochanostachys amentacea

Petaling

96

Moraceae

Artocarpus rigidus

Terap

90

Apocynaceae

Alstonia angustiloba

Pulai

90

Leguminosae

Falcataria moluccana

Batai

84

Dipterocarpaceae

Anisoptera costata

Mersawa

80

Rosaceae

Prunus polystachya

Medang kelawar

74

Meliaceae

Azadirachta excelsa

Sentang

70

Combretaceae

Terminalia bellirica

Bahera

70

Dipterocarpaceae

Dipterocarpus baudii

Keruing bulu

69

Anacardiaceae

Gluta wallichii

Rengas

60

Lauraceae

Litsea castanea

Medang kunyit

60

Leguminosae

Callerya atropurpurea

Tulang daing

55

Moraceae

Ficus variegata

Ara

53

Euphorbiaceae

Endospermum diadenum

Seduduk-seduduk

50

Anacardiaceae

Gluta curtisii

Rengas

50

Anacardiaceae

Gluta malayana

Rengas

50

Meliaceae

Toona sureni

Surian

50

Sapotaceae

Pouteria malaccensis

Nyatoh

Tall trees of the emergent layer in BNFR include many Dipterocarpaceae (16 species), the dominant family in Malaysian lowland rain forest, as well as Dyera costula (Apocynaceae), Mesua ferrea (Calophyllaceae), Palaquium obovatum (Sapotaceae), Neesia malayana (Malvaceae), Gluta curtisii, G. malayana and G. wallichii (Anacardiaceae).

In the main stratum, there are a great diversity of typical lowland forest trees such as Sindora coriaceae (Leguminosae), Canarium littorale, Dacryodes costata, Santiria apiculata (Burseraceae), Calophyllum inophyllum, Garcinia spp. (Clusiaceae), Madhuca spp., Palaquium spp., Pouteria malaccensis (Sapotaceae), Endocomia canarioides, Horsfieldia spp., Knema spp. (Myristicaceae), Artocarpus spp. and Ficus spp. (Moraceae), Syzygium spp. (Myrtaceae) and many others.

The large palms, Oncospermum horridum and Arenga westerhoutii, are also the typical lowland forest. In the understory, treelets, such as Chassalia chartacea (Rubiaceae) and Pheanthus nutans (Annonaceae); herbs like Tacca integrifolia (Dioscoreaceae) and Araceae (Aglaonema simplex and Schismatoglottis scortechinii) and Zingiberaceae (Zingiber zerumbet and Elettariopsis triloba) are common.

Among the most abundance forest species recorded in BNFR (Table 4), three are ferns (Adiantum latifolium, Pronephrium menisciicarpon and Stenochlaena palustris). Two are native species of the forest floor, Aglaonema simplex and Thottea tricornis. Thottea tricornis is important because it is the food plant of the caterpillar of the yellow birdwing butterfly, one of the most spectacular in Malaysia. The shrub Chassalia chartacea grows along trails and under big trees.

The most common forest species in the Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve.

Family

Species

Adiantaceae

Adiantum latifolium

Annonaceae

Phaeanthus ophthalmicus

Araceae

Aglaonema simplex

Aristolochiaceae

Thottea tricornis

Blechnaceae

Stenochlaena palustris

Cornaceae

Alangium griffithii

Euphorbiaceae

Elateriospermum tapos

Ixonanthaceae

Ixonanthes icosandra

Rubiaceae

Chassalia chartacea

Rubiaceae

Aidia densiflora

Rutaceae

Maclurodendron porteri

Sapotaceae

Palaquium obovatum

Thelypteridaceae

Pronephrium menisciicarpon

Endemic species

Henderson (1928), who provided the first list of plants from BNFR recorded 15 species as endemic to Peninsular Malaysia compared with 35 species collected between 1901 and 2014 (Table 5).

Species endemic to Peninsular Malaysia recorded by Henderson (1928) (as “Hend.”), BRAHMS KEP data (1901-2014) (as “BRAHMS”), JPSM (2006) (as “FD”) and by FRIM survey (2015/2016) (as “15/16”).

(Note, * = endemic to Selangor).

Family

Species

BRAHMS

Hend.

FD

15/16

Achariaceae

Ryparosa fasciculata

Achariaceae

Scaphocalyx spathacea

Anacardiaceae

Gluta curtisii

Annonaceae

Alphonsea maingayi

Annonaceae

Drepananthus pruniferus

Annonaceae

Enicosanthum fuscum

Annonaceae

Phaeanthus ophthalmicus

Annonaceae

Xylopia subdehiscens

Apocynaceae

Anodendron wrayi

Apocynaceae

Leuconotis griffithii

Aquifoliaceae

Ilex maingayi

Araceae

Schismatoglottis scortechinii

Clusiaceae

Garcinia dumosa

Dichapetalaceae

Dichapetalum griffithii

Ebenaceae

Diospyros argentea

Euphorbiaceae

Ptychopyxis costata var. oblanceolata

Fagaceae

Castanopsis nephelioides

Fagaceae

Castanopsis wallichii

Fagaceae

Lithocarpus curtisii

Lamiaceae

Vitex longisepala

Lecythidaceae

Barringtonia fusiformis

Leguminosae

Bauhinia audax

Leguminosae

Crudia curtisii

Leguminosae

Fordia albiflora

Leguminosae

Ormosia polita

Malvaceae

Kostermansia malayana

Melastomataceae

Oxyspora bullata

Moraceae

Artocarpus hispidus

Moraceae

Ficus aurata

Myrtaceae

Syzygium borneense

Myrtaceae

Syzygium inophyllum

Phyllanthaceae

Aporosa penangensis

Phyllanthaceae

Baccaurea hookeri

Piperaceae

Piper porphyrophyllum

Rhizophoraceae

Pellacalyx saccardianus

Rubiaceae

Ixora kingstonii

Rubiaceae

Lasianthus oblongus

Rubiaceae

Oxyceros fragrantissimus

Rubiaceae

Psychotria penangiana

Rubiaceae

Tarenna rudis*

Salicaceae

Casearia clarkei var. kunstleri

Sapotaceae

Palaquium maingayi

Sapotaceae

Palaquium oxleyanum

Zingiberaceae

Globba variabilis

TOTAL

35

15

5

16

Most of this increase derives from the latter surveys including all groups of plants, notably ferns, and from the more intensive collecting over a longer period. Of particular importance, however, from Henderson’s list is Tarenna rudis (Rubiaceae), the only species endemic to Selangor (Henderson 1928). Surprisingly, after 87 years, this species still exist in BNFR and recollected again during our survey.

Recollecting these endemic species was one of the objectives of this study but in spite of regular intensive search just 16 endemic species were collected (Table 5). In term of species number it was increase compare to Henderson survey because only three species are recollected again and remaining are new record in survey. But in term of the endemic lost from Henderson survey, 12 species did not exist anymore in BNFR. This is of particular concern since endemics are species of conservation importance. Reasons for this are various. One obvious reason is that the area of BNFR is now a fraction of its original size. When the size decrease some species lost because of disruption to the development and effect of the open area that give unsuitable conditions to grow and pollinate for their survival and generation.

Example of the species not recollected are Alphonsea maingayi (Annonaceae), Drepananthus pruniferus (Annonaceae), Phaeanthus ophthalmicus (Annonaceae), Xylopia subdehiscens (Annonaceae), Leuconotis griffithii (Apocynaceae), Lithocarpus curtisii (Fagaceae), Bauhinia audax (Leguminosae), Ormosia polita (Leguminosae), Syzygium borneense (Myrtaceae), Piper porphyrophyllum (Piperaceae), Lasianthus oblongus (Rubiaceae) and Casearia clarkei var. kunstleri (Salicaceae).

When we compare our recent survey with Henderson (Henderson 1928) and other botanists that collected between 1901 to 2014 only six of the species that still exist on BNFR such as Scaphocalyx spathacea (Achariaceae), Diospyros argentea (Ebenaceae) and Tarenna rudis (Rubiaceae), Ryparosa fasciculata (Achariaceae), Syzygium inophyllum (Myrtaceae) and Palaquium maingayi (Sapotaceae).

Change over time

For more than a hundred years, BNFR has been an isolated forest island in a sea of urbanisation. Although it was never logged, its size has been reduced from 17.5 ha in 1928 to 9.37 ha today and its accessibility in the centre of a busy city means it is vulnerable to disturbance. It is therefore to be expected that over the years, sensitive species will loss as the climate in the city has become hotter and less humid and many of the birds, mammals and presumably also insects that were pollinators or fruit and seed dispersers died out. Species loss is particularly conspicuous among the endemic species. Of the 267 species listed by Henderson (Table 6), 15 species are endemic to Peninsular Malaysia but after 87 years only about 20% still remain including Tarenna rudis that have been recollected in the BNFR.

List of the naturalised plants

Family

Species

Acanthaceae

Asystasia gangetica ssp. micrantha

Acanthaceae

Hemigraphis reptans

Acanthaceae

Lepidagathis sp. 1

Adiantaceae

Adiantum latifolium

Araceae

Syngonium podophyllum

Cleomaceae

Cleome rutidosperma

Compositae

Ageratum conyzoides

Compositae

Crassocephalum crepidioides

Cucurbitaceae

Melothria pendula

Leguminosae

Senna sulfurea

Leguminosae

Senna hirsuta

Onagraceae

Ludwigia hyssopifolia

The future

At the present time, the presence of tall emergent trees and a complete canopy structure provides stable cooler, humid conditions suitable for the growth and regeneration of shade tolerant shrubs and herbs. But with development, the central area has become smaller in proportion to the margin. Additionally, the edge effect with conditions of high light, high temperatures and low humidity will, on the one hand, encourage the invasion of secondary and naturalised species, while on the other hand preventing the growth and regeneration of primary rain forest species.

Native secondary forest tree species, Macaranga tanarius, Macaranga triloba, Macaranga gigantea and Mallotus paniculatus form thickets along the forest margin. The fern Lygodium microphyllum is most common on the forest margins. However, some naturalised exotic species are invasive or have the potential to become established within the forest because they are adapted to forest habitats, such as Syngonium podophyllum, Cleome rutidosperma and Melothria pendula. Asystasia gangentica ssp. micrantha is an invasive weed introduced in the 1970s but is now naturalised and widespread and ubiquitous (Kiew and Vollescen 1997).

Secondary species and weeds are light demanding so if forest structure is not disturbed nor fragmented, they are unable to penetrate into the forest and therefore cannot compete with primary forest species. Over time, secondary forest trees can form a stable canopy. The shade demanding forest species can invade and become established and eventually grow taller and overshadow the secondary forest trees. Gradually over time primary forest species will replace the secondary ones. However, this depends on a seed source and being an island in a sea of urbanisation, recruitment of primary forest species can only be obtain from the existing stocks.

Using IUCN categories and criteria, five species was categorized as nearly threatened such as Dipterocarpaceae family including Anisoptera costata, Shorea sumatrana and two other species, Magnolia montana and Memecylon campanulatum (Table 7). In BNFR, there is only one tree of Shorea sumatrana with the diameter of 108 cm. The area where it grows needs to be protected to conserve the tree and enable its saplings to become established to ensure this species is not lost from BNFR.

List of the endangered species in BNFR based on Flora Peninsular Malaysia (Kiew et al. 2010, Kiew et al. 2011, Kiew et al. 2012, Kiew et al. 2013, Kiew et al. 2015, Parris et al. 2010, Parris et al. 2013) and Malaysia Plant Red List (Chua et al. 2010).

Family

Species

Conservation Status

Dipterocarpaceae

Anisoptera costata

NT

Dipterocarpaceae

Shorea dasyphylla

VU

Dipterocarpaceae

Shorea sumatrana

NT

Magnoliaceae

Magnolia montana

NT

Melastomataceae

Memecylon campanulatum

NT

Cultivated species

Another source of invasive plants is from the planting of both of the native and exotic ornamental species around the Forest Department Information Centre and along paths (Table 8). One example is the ornamental Dioscorea zanzibarica, a most invasive species that is recorded in the Bukit Nanas area. Another species found in the open and near the canopy area is Hemigraphis reptans, an invasive shade-tolerant species that should be removed to prevent its spread. These two species need to be monitored to prevent their spread and impact on the natural habitat. The other problem is the addition of several native tree species, such as Hopea odorata, H. helferi and Vatica pauciflora, planted around the Visitor Centre and along the trails. If they become established, they will merge into the forest area and, in future, it will not be possible to distinguish the original BNFR forest species from those brought in. Care needs to be taken to maintained the original forest and to prevent the invasion of both exotic species and native species brought in from elsewhere.

List of the cultivated species planted in Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve.

Family

Species

Categories

Acanthaceae

Clinacanthus nutans

Native

Acanthaceae

Hemigraphis reptans

Naturalised

Acanthaceae

Justicia vulgaris

Naturalised

Acanthaceae

Strobilanthes crispus

Naturalised

Achariaceae

Pangium edule

Native

Amaryllidaceae

Crinum asiaticum

Native

Anacardiaceae

Mangifera indica

Native

Anacardiaceae

Mangifera quadrifida

Native

Annonaceae

Polyalthia bullata

Native

Annonaceae

Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula

Native

Araceae

Aglaonema nitidum × comutatum

Naturalised

Araceae

Alocasia sp. 1

Native

Araucariaceae

Agathis borneensis

Native

Arecaceae

Areca catechu

Native

Arecaceae

Johannesteijsmannia altifrons

Native

Arecaceae

Livistona rotundifolia

Naturalised

Arecaceae

Pinanga disticha

Native

Arecaceae

Pinanga sp. 1

Native

Arecaceae

Rhapis excelsa

Native

Asparagaceae

Dracaena fragrans

Naturalised

Bignoniaceae

Tabebuia rosea

Naturalised

Bromeliaceae

Ananas nanus

Naturalised

Cactaceae

Pereskia sacharosa

Naturalised

Cibotiaceae

Cibotium barometz

Native

Combretaceae

Terminalia subspathulata

Native

Cycadaceae

Cycas macrocarpa

Native

Dioscoreaceae

Dioscorea zanzibarica

Exotic

Dipterocarpaceae

Dipterocarpus chartaceus

Native

Dipterocarpaceae

Hopea helferi

Native

Dipterocarpaceae

Hopea odorata

Native

Dipterocarpaceae

Hopea pierrei

Native

Dipterocarpaceae

Neobalanocarpus heimii

Native

Dipterocarpaceae

Shorea

Native

Dipterocarpaceae

Shorea singkawang

Native

Dipterocarpaceae

Vatica cuspidata

Native

Dipterocarpaceae

Vatica pauciflora

Native

Euphorbiaceae

Aleurites moluccana

Native

Euphorbiaceae

Hevea brasiliensis

Naturalised

Euphorbiaceae

Jatropha curcas

Native

Gentianaceae

Fagraea fragrans

Native

Gnetaceae

Gnetum gnemon

Native

Gramineae

Bambusa multiplex

Native

Gramineae

Bambusa ventricosa

Exotic

Gramineae

Bambusa vulgaris

Native

Gramineae

Gigantochloa scortechinii

Native

Gramineae

Isachne albens

Native

Gramineae

Schizostachyum brachycladum

Native

Gramineae

Schizostachyum jaculans

Native

Guttiferae

Garcinia atroviridis

Native

Guttiferae

Garcinia mangostana

Native

Hamamelidaceae

Maingaya malayana

Native

Heliconiaceae

Heliconia psittacorum

Naturalised

Labiatae

Clerodendrum paniculatum

Native

Labiatae

Orthosiphon stamineus

Naturalised

Labiatae

Plectranthus monostachyus

Native

Lauraceae

Cinnamomum iners

Native

Leguminosae

Bauhinia kockiana

Naturalised

Leguminosae

Delonix regia

Naturalised

Leguminosae

Koompassia excelsa

Native

Leguminosae

Koompassia malaccensis

Native

Leguminosae

Peltophorum pterocarpum

Native

Leguminosae

Tamarindus indica

Native

Lythraceae

Lagerstroemia speciosa

Naturalised

Malvaceae

Durio zibethinus

Native

Malvaceae

Sterculia foetida

Native

Marantaceae

Donax canniformis

Native

Marantaceae

Phrynium pubinerve

Native

Marattiaceae

Angiopteris evecta

Native

Meliaceae

Azadirachta indica

Naturalised

Meliaceae

Lansium domesticum

Native

Meliaceae

Swietenia macrophylla

Naturalised

Menispermaceae

Tinospora crispa

Native

Myristicaceae

Myristica fragrans

Native

Myrtaceae

Syzygium aromaticum

Native

Myrtaceae

Syzygium campanulatum

Native

Myrtaceae

Tristaniopsis whiteana

Native

Orchidaceae

Cymbidium finlaysonianum

Native

Pandanaceae

Pandanus amaryllifolius

Native

Pandanaceae

Pandanus soboliferus

Native

Pandanaceae

Pandanus utilis

Native

Phyllanthaceae

Phyllanthus emblica

Native

Podocarpaceae

Podocarpus polystachyus

Native

Podocarpaceae

Podocarpus rumphii

Native

Pteleocarpaceae

Pteleocarpa lamponga

Native

Rubiaceae

Gardenia tubifera

Native

Rubiaceae

Ixora javanica

Native

Rutaceae

Citrus aurantifolia

Native

Rutaceae

Murraya paniculata

Native

Sapindaceae

Lepisanthes alata

Native

Sapindaceae

Nephelium lappaceum var. lappaceum

Native

Sapotaceae

Mimusops elengi

Native

Simaroubaceae

Eurycoma longifolia

Native

Stemonaceae

Stemona curtisii

Native

Zingiberaceae

Curcuma longa

Native

Zingiberaceae

Etlingera elatior

Native

Zingiberaceae

Kaempferia pulchra

Native

Conclusion

Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve is the only forest in the city that gives a green view surrounding. It must be maintained to provide good conditions for the development of the trees and become a reference centre for learning in the future. Our study provides the baseline data for the existing flora 88 years after it was inventoried by Henderson in 1928 and also records the existence of new and introduced species into this area that become invasive and naturalised. Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve is still categorised as a good forest with good forest structure and diversity because there are still many species, especially large trees that form the emergent layer and a complete tree canopy that provide cool, humid, shaded conditions for the shrubs and herbs below. In this area, the management department of forestry also grows some of the forest species and exotic plants to close the open area caused by the constructions. However, the operation and management of these introduce species into the area must be controlled to prevent taxonomic confusion in the future. In addition, the area is also increasingly disturbed by the construction of a pedestrian. Therefore, the management department of forestry must have the good plan structure for future conservation.

Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve had the privilege to serve as biodiversity centre, research, education, recreation, tourism, heritage and green lung area with monitoring and rigorous forest management. With an area of 9.37 ha, BNFR provides a good habitat for a diversity of plants and mammals.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory State Forestry and Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia (JPSM) for permission to carry out the inventory in the Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve. We are greatly indebted to Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) and Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL) for their finanical support under the Memorandum of Understanding between DBKL and FRIM (2014-2017) and an Agreement between DBKL and FRIM (2015-2017) via vote number 51310708002. We are grateful to the Flora of Peninsular Malaysia team in the Forest Biodiversity Division, in particular Mohd. Hairul Mohd Amin, Angan Atan and Noor Neknazrul Husain for field assistance and contribution in this inventory.

References