Aggregation operations are associative and commutative. Here the combination of two aggregations leads to the same result, irrespective of the order of operations. The example shows 48 numbers which stand for eight indicators in six subregions. These are aggregated to a single index for the whole region, either by thematic then spatial aggregation or by spatial then thematic aggregation.

  Part of: Keith H, Czúcz B, Jackson B, Driver A, Nicholson E, Maes J (2020) A conceptual framework and practical structure for implementing ecosystem condition accounts. One Ecosystem 5: e58216.