Synergies and trade-offs of marine and coastal CES. The figure shows synergies and trade-offs within CES, between CES and provisioning/regulating ecosystem services and abiotic outputs, and between CES and human-related activities. Abiotic outputs refer to those ecosystem elements that provide benefits to humans but are not generated by biotic processes (e.g., minerals, wind, waves). One green dot represents a synergy, and one red dot a trade-off, as identified in the literature.

  Part of: Garcia Rodrigues J, Conides A, Rivero Rodriguez S, Raicevich S, Pita P, Kleisner K, Pita C, Lopes P, Alonso Roldán V, Ramos S, Klaoudatos D, Outeiro L, Armstrong C, Teneva L, Stefanski S, Böhnke-Henrichs A, Kruse M, Lillebø A, Bennett E, Belgrano A, Murillas A, Sousa Pinto I, Burkhard B, Villasante S (2017) Marine and Coastal Cultural Ecosystem Services: knowledge gaps and research priorities. One Ecosystem 2: e12290.